Project: Biogenic Fuel Ignition Research on the development of a more precise determination procedure of standardised fuel numbers.

_x000D_For 80 years, fuel numbers have been determined in the same way by using standardised test engines and test metrology in combination with a well-defined and established test routine. Nevertheless, car manufacturers as well as the testing staff of refineries surmise that the current testing method may not be applicable anymore to the present-day fuel mixture both for SI- and Diesel engines, especially turbo charged engines. This technological challenge is due to the fact that the share of biofuels is constantly increasing while there is a broader diversification of biofuel types at the same time. As stated in the final draft report of the Biofuels Research Advisory Council “Biofuels in the European Union. A Vision for 2030 and Beyond”, the European Union expects that as much as 25% of its road transport fuel needs will be covered by clean and CO2-efficient biofuels. Serious calculations assume a potential for CO2-emission-reduction of about 8 Mio t/a using a 15%-admixture of biofuels (cf. EUtech – Energie&Management study “Biokraftstoffe und Klimaschutz”, dated 2008)._x000D_However, while the present-day energy mix in the EU transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels in Europe and the US, countries such as Brazil, Sweden and China already use bioethanol as an integral admixture or principal component for petrol engines. Throughout Europe, a bio quota of 5% of petrols is currently specified (E5) in order to reduce fossil CO2 emissions with the further aims to increase this quota to at least 10% in the near future. Because bioethanol has a greater tendency to premature ignition than to knocking, the determination of an octane number by using existing test methods is no longer reasonable. This results in considerable problems in the engine application that can affect fuel consumption, operating life and performance._x000D_For diesel, too, an increase in the bio-quota in Europe from currently 7% is foreseeable. The CO component currently being used in order to achieve the bio quota is RME, to be joined in future by 1st and 2nd generation BTL (biomass to liquid) process improvements, pressed vegetable oil and waste fats from the food industry. Because the latter differ considerably from fossil diesel fuels due to different characteristics in fuel spray preparation, evaporation enthalpy and combustion chemistry, engine manufacturers believe that here, too, the reference accuracy of an engine-based test method will reCO indispensable._x000D_This overall challenge has grown more acute due to an ever increasing use and an expanding diversification of biogenic fuels in mass transportation. Prof. J. Leohold from Volkswagen AG, member of the Strategy Commission of the Federal Government of Germany, in a recently published paper “Biogene Kraftstoffe – Potenziale und notwendige Rahmenbedingungen“ (cf. www.zukunftsenergien.de) argued that this method does not reflect an engine’s real fuel ignition behavior with the necessary degree of accuracy. The common way to determine octan and cetan numbers of fossil fuels is not suitable for these applications anymore. _x000D_In order to meet the aims set by the EU for 2030 mentioned above, it is mandatory to bring the measurement of knock intensity (for gasoline fuels) respectively the ignition delay (for diesel engines) up to date. The objective here is to develop a concept suitable for production use which can easily be adapted to existing test engines (with regard to all the necessary modifications in engine construction) and with which biofuel quality can be determined precisely and reproducibly._x000D_This will be reached particularly by the aid of a digital, freely programmable signal processor that incorporates e.g. statically, thermodynamic and reaction kinetic parameters for the combustion and the pressure pattern, thus determining the relevant numbers. The evaluation methods can easily be adapted to the above requirements and new fuel numbers defined if necessary._x000D_A side effect of the programming of a corresponding evaluation routine together with online display may be seen in the fact that this universal new method will also be applicable for conventional fossil fuels. This is apt to facilitate the tester’s work and greatly increases the transparency of the measuring process in general, while accommodating the engine manufacturers’ requirements. The aim here is both to avoid any individual influence by the tester on the measurement result and to increase repeat accuracy._x000D__x000D__x000D__x000D_

Acronym bioFIRe (Reference Number: 5617)
Duration 01/10/2010 - 30/09/2012
Project Topic The increasing use of biofuels is a major challenge for engine manufacturers for performance and CO2 efficiency. Conventional test methods for fossil fuels cannot determine ignition behavior of biofuel. The solution is the application of an up-to-date metrology and innovative evaluation routines.
Network Eurostars
Call Eurostars Cut-Off 4

Project partner

Number Name Role Country
3 Gesellschaft fuer Motoren- und Fahrzeugtechnik Partner Germany
3 ROFA - Laboratory & Process Analyzers Coordinator Austria
3 Hochschule fuer angewandte Wissenschaften FH Ingolstadt Partner Germany