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Public to Public Partnerships - P2Ps

Over the past years there has been a proliferation of instruments and initiatives oriented towards coordination, collaboration, and even alignment of national strategies and programmes in further developing the ERA and tackling societal challenges while also strengthening European competitiveness. They span from Member State-lead initiatives to instruments strongly supported by the European Commission and Horizon 2020, or from partnerships among public agencies to alliances between the public and private sectors.)

Public to Public Partnerships (P2Ps) aim at coordination and collaboration between national / regional research and innovation activities. P2Ps align national strategies, helping to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of public research efforts. P2Ps involve varying degrees of joint effort, such as joint calls or other forms of cooperation. P2P networks include ERA-NETs, Article 185 initiatives as well Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs).



Joint Programming is a structured and strategic process whereby Member States agree, on a voluntary basis and in a partnership approach, on common visions and Strategic Research Agendas (SRA) to address major societal challenges. On a variable geometry basis, Member States commit to Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs) where they implement together joint Strategic Research Agendas. Read more

Art. 185

Article 185 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) enables the EU to participate in research programmes undertaken jointly by several Member States, as well as in the structures created for the execution of such joint programmes. Article 185 initiatives represent the closest integration of national and EU programmes thus far. Read more 


The ERA-NET instrument under Horizon 2020 supports public-public partnerships in preparing, implementing and coordinating joint activities by financing coordination activities of national / regional programmes as well as topping up national contribution to joint calls. Read more 

EJP Cofund

The European Joint Programme Cofund (EJP Cofund) is a new type of instrument introduced in Horizon 2020 in 2016, previously used in the context of Euratom. The main purpose is the implementation of a joint programme of activities, mainly direct research and innovation activities (through calls for proposals resulting in financial support to third parties), but also allowing coordination and networking activities, including training activities, demonstration and dissemination activities. The total duration of the action is fixed at 5 years. Read more 

Other instruments and initiatives

ERA-LEARN has a focus on Public-Public-Partnerships (P2P). Nevertheless an overview on other ERA coordination instruments is given. Read more