Project: Dry production routes for large-area benign metal halide perovskite solar cells

Acronym PERDRY (Reference Number: JTC-2_2019_025)
Duration 01/11/2019 - 31/12/2022
Project Topic Solar cells employing metal halide perovskite, HaP, light absorbers have developed tremendously over the past years. So far, best efficiencies (>22%) were all obtained with lead-based HaPs, prepared by non-scalable spin-coating using often toxic solvents. Hence, to reach a TRL >5 it is essential to develop scalable processes with no toxic solvents and either replace the lead or ensure safe “end-of-life” protocols. We will use dry processing to prepare uniform large-area and benign HaP thin films and integrate them into efficient photovoltaic devices. Physical vapour-based processes such as co-evaporation, flash evaporation and pulsed laser deposition of the binary constituents or pre-formed powders will be used. The current TRL of these processes is 3-4 for flash and co-evaporation and 2 for pulsed laser deposition. The main benefit of these dry processes is that they are solvent-free and additive (allowing for multiple layer films). They allow for a very high compositional freedom, because no common solvent is needed to process/dissolve the precursor salts. Furthermore, control over the numerous interfaces in the stacked layer device is less problematic than for solution-based addition of layers. We will leverage this important advantage to develop more benign HaP films, by replacing toxic lead with tin, bismuth, or antimony and a mono-valent cation. Our Solar Cell manufacturing partner, 3GSolar, will provide the consortium with end-user information and with knowledge regarding rigorous encapsulation. The latter will prevent contact of the perovskite with ambient atmosphere, which strongly increases the lifetime and eliminates risk of lead contamination to the environment. To demonstrate TRL=5 partner Solmates will prepare 10 by 10 cm films using vapour-based processes and integrate them into solar cell demonstrators (PCE>19%, and stability over 5000 hours).
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Project partner

Number Name Role Country
1 Universitat de València (UVEG) Molecular Science Institute (ICMol) Coordinator Spain
2 Bar Ilan University (BIU) Chemistry - Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Partner Israel
3 Solmates BV Partner Netherlands
4 Karlstad University (KAU) Department of Engineering and Physics Partner Sweden
5 JB EcoTech AB Partner Sweden
6 Glava Energy Center AB Partner Sweden
7 3GSolar Photovoltaics Ltd Partner Israel